Prof. Brian K. Owler MB BS BSc(Med)(Hons) PhD FRACS Adult & Pediatric Neurosurgeon
My Practice

Publications

Book Publications

Johnston, I., Owler, B. K., Pickard, J. The Pseudotumor Syndrome: Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension, Benign Intracranial Hypertension, Pseudotumor Cerebri and related conditions. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK. 2007.

Book Chapters Published

Morris, JGL, Owler, B. K., Hely, M. A. and Fung, V. S. C. Hydrocephalus and structural lesion. Handbook of Clinical Neurology. Parkinsonís disease and related disorders.

Pickard, J. D., Czosnyka, M., Higgins, N., Owler, B., Momjian, S., Pena, A. Clinical Aspects of Disorders of the Choroid Plexus and CSF Circulation. P 497-517. In: The Blood-Cerebrospinal Fluid Barrier. Zheng, W and Chodobski, A. Taylor & Francis CRC Press 2005.

Theses Published

Owler, B. K. Pathophysiology and Management of Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus. PhD Thesis, 2004.

Owler, B. K. Brainstem and spinal cord processing of visceral noxious information. Department of Anatomy, University of Sydney, 1993.

Government Publications

Baggoley C, Owler B, Grigg M, et al. Expert panel review of elective surgery and emergency access targets under the National Partnership Agreement on Improving Public Hospital Services. Report to the Council of Australian Governments, 30 June 2011. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia, 2011.

Opinion Editorials

Articles in Referred Journals

  • Shaw R, Everingham E, Mahant N, Jacobson E, Owler B. Clinical outcomes in the surgical treatment of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus. J Clin Neurosci. 2016 Feb 27. pii: S0967-5868(15)00717-1. doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2015.10.044.
     
  • Owler BK, Carmo KA, Bladwell W, Fa'asalele TA, Roxburgh J, Kendrick T, Berry A. Mobile pediatric neurosurgery: rapid response neurosurgery for remote or urgent pediatric patients.J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2015 Sep;16(3):340-5. Epub 2015 Jun 19
     
  • Ahmed RM, Zmudzki F, Parker GD, Owler BK, Halmagyi GM. Transverse Sinus Stenting for Pseudotumor Cerebri: A Cost Comparison with CSF Shunting. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2013 Nov 28
     
  • Trinh B, Ha AD, Mahant N, Kim SD, Owler B, Fung VS. Dramatic improvement of truncal tardive dystonia following globus pallidus pars interna deep brain stimulation. J Clin Neurosci. 2013 Jun 18. doi:pii: S0967-5868(13)00311-1.
     
  • Malm J, Graff-Radford NR, Ishikawa M, Kristensen B, Leinonen V, Mori E, Owler BK, Tullberg M, Williams MA, Relkin NR. Influence of comorbidities in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus - research and clinical care. A report of the ISHCSF task force on comorbidities in INPH. Fluids Barriers CNS. 2013 Jun 10;10(1):22. doi: 10.1186/2045-8118-10-22.
     
  • Pham AC, Fan C, Owler BK. Treating pediatric hydrocephalus in Australia: a 3-year hospital-based cost analysis and comparison with other studies. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2013 Apr;11(4):398-401. doi: 10.3171/2013.1.PEDS12233. Epub 2013 Feb 8.
     
  • Carlos Chung KH, Owler BK, Dexter M, Chaseling R.Paediatric germ cell tumours of the central nervous system: Results and experience from a tertiary-referral paediatric institution in Australia. J Clin Neurosci. 2013 Apr;20(4):514-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2012.04.017. Epub 2013 Jan 11.
     
  • Dwyer CM, Prelog K, Owler BK. The role of venous sinus outflow obstruction in pediatric idiopathic intracranial hypertension. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2013 Feb;11(2):144-9. doi: 10.3171/2012.10.PEDS1299. Epub 2012 Nov 23.
     
  • R.M. Ahmed, M. Wilkinson, G.D. Parker, M.J. Thurtell, J. Macdonald, P.J. McCluskey, R. Allan, V. Dunne, M. Hanlon, B.K. Owler, and G.M. Halmagyi. Transverse Sinus Stenting for Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension: A Review of 52 Patients and of Model Predictions. AJNR Am. J. Neuroradiol., Jul 28, 2011.
     
  • Wang D, Nykanen M, Yang N, Winlaw D, North K, Verkman AS, Owler BK. Altered cellular localization of aquaporin-1 in experimental hydrocephalus in mice and reduced ventriculomegaly in aquaporin-1 deficiency. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2011 Jan;46(1):318-24. Epub 2010 Oct 30
     
  • Chung KHC, Charlton A, Arbuckle S, Chaseling R, Owler BK. Metachronous Multifocal Desmoid-Type Fibromatoses Along the Neuraxis with Adenomatous Polyposis Syndrome: Case Report. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2010 Oct;6(4):372-6
     
  • Wang D, Owler BK. Expression of AQP1 and 4 in paediatric brain tumours. J Clin Neurosci. 2011 Jan;18(1):122-7. Epub 2010 Oct 20.
     
  • Owler BK, Pitham T, Wang D. Aquaporins: relevance to cerebrospinal fluid physiology and therapeutic potential in hydrocephalus. Cerebrospinal Fluid Res. 2010 Sep 22;7:15
     
  • Czosnyka Z, Owler B, Keong N, Santarius T, Baledent O, Pickard JD, Czosnyka M. Impact of duration of symptoms on CSF dynamics in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus. Acta Neurol Scand. 2010 Sep 16.
     
  • Murali R. Scheithauer BW. Chaseling RW. Owler BK. Ng T. Papillary tumour of the pineal region: cytological features and implications for intraoperative diagnosis. Pathology. 42(5):474-9, 2010
     
  • Silberstein P, Bittar RG, Boyle R, Cook R, Coyne T, O'Sullivan D, Pell M, Peppard R, Rodrigues J, Silburn P, Stell R, Watson P; Australian DBS Referral Guidelines Working Group.Deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease: Australian referral guidelines. J Clin Neurosci. 2009 Aug;16(8):1001-8. Review
     
  • Owler BK. CSF shunt failure – an ongoing epidemic? (Editorial). Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 80(11), 2009
     
  • Pickard JD. Czosnyka Z. Czosnyka M. Owler B. Higgins JN. Coupling of sagittal sinus pressure and cerebrospinal fluid pressure in idiopathic intracranial hypertension--a preliminary report.  Acta Neurochirurgica - Supplement. 102:283-5, 2008.
     
  • Czosnyka Z. Keong N. Kim DJ. Radolovich D. Smielewski P. Lavinio A. Schmidt EA. Momjian S. Owler B. Pickard JD. Czosnyka M. Pulse amplitude of intracranial pressure waveform in hydrocephalus. Acta Neurochirurgica - Supplement. 102:137-40, 2008.
     
  • Hansen MA, Cruz MJ, Owler BK. Endoscopic transnasal decompression for management of basilar invagination in osteogenesis imperfect.  Journal of Neurosurgery Spine. 9(4):354-7, 2008 Oct.
     
  • Khong P, Pitham T, Owler BK. Isolated neurolymphomatosis of the cauda equina and filum terminale: case report.Spine. 33(21):E807-11, 2008 Oct 1
     
  • DeVito EE, Salmond CH, Owler BK, Sahakian BJ, Pickard JD. Caudate structural abnormalities in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus. Acta Neurol Scand. 2007 Nov;116(5):328-32.
     
  • Czosnyka M, Czosnyka Z, Keong N, Lavinio A, Smielewski P, Momjian S, Schmidt EA, Petrella G, Owler B, Pickard JD. Pulse pressure waveform in hydrocephalus: what it is and what it isn't. Neurosurg Focus. 2007 Apr 15;22(4):E2.
     
  • Owler, B.K., Higgins, J. N. P., Pena, A., Carpenter, A., and Pickard, J.D. Diffusion tensor imaging of benign intracranial hypertension. Absence of cerebral oedema. British Journal of Neurosurgery 20(2): 79-81, 2006.
  • Warrier, S. Owler, B.K., Besser, M.  Paraganglioma and paragangliomatosis: case report and review of the literature. ANZ Journal of Surgery 76(11):1033-1037, 2006.
     
  • Czosnyka Z, Czosnyka M, Owler B, Momjian S, Kasprowicz M, Schmidt EA, Smielewski P, Pickard JD. Clinical testing of CSF circulation in hydrocephalus. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2005;95:247-51.
     
  • Owler, B.K., Parker, G., Halmagyi, GM., Besser, M., Higgins, JNP., Pickard, JD. Venous factors in pseudotumor cerebri: a review. Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery, 30:107-174, 2005.
     
  • Owler, B.K., Besser, M. Extradural hematoma causing venous sinus obstruction and pseudotumor cerebri syndrome. Child’s Nervous System 21(3):262-4, 2005.
     
  • Owler, B. K., Makeham, J. M., Shingde, M. and Besser, M. Cerebellar Liponeurocytoma. Journal of Clinical Neuroscience 12(3): 326-9, 2005
     
  • Owler, B. K., Halmagyi, G.M., Brennan, J., Besser, M. Syringomyelia with Chiari Malformations: 3 Unusual cases with implications for pathogenesis. Acta Neurochirurgica (Wien) 146(10):1137-43., 2004.
     
  • Owler, B.K., Warrier, S., Besser, M. Traumatic unilateral deep cerebral venous infarction. Journal of Clinical Neurosciencce 11(7): 767-70, 2004.
     
  • Owler, B.K., Parker, G., Halmagyi, GM., Dunne, VG., Grinnell, V., McDowell, D., Besser, M. Pseudotumor cerebri and venous sinus stenosis. Year Book of Neurology and Neurosurgery 2004.
     
  • Owler, B.K., Pena, A., Momjian, S.,  Harris, N., Czosnyka, Z., Czosnyka, M., Fryer, T., Smielewski, P., Donovan, T., and Pickard, J.D. Changes in Cerebral Blood Flow during CSF Pressure Manipulation in Patients with Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 24(5):579-87, 2004.
     
  • Momjian, S., Owler, B.K., Czosnyka, Z., Czosnyka, Pena, A. and Pickard, J.D. Pattern of White Matter Regional Cerebral Blood Flow and Autoregulation in Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus. Brain 127: 965-972, 2004.
     
  • Higgins, J.N.P., Gillard, G.H., Owler, B.K., Harkness, K., Pickard, J. D. MR venography in idiopathic intracranial hypertension: unappreciated and misunderstood. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 75: 621-625, 2004.
     
  • Higgins, J. N. P., Cousins, C., Owler, B. K., Sarkies, N., Pickard, J. D. Benign Intracranial Hypertension: 12 cases treated with venous sinus stenting. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 74(12): 1662-1666, 2004.
     
  • Owler, B.K., Pena, A., Harris, N., Czosnyka, Z., Czosnyka, M., Fryer, T., Smielewski, P., Donovan, T., Coles, J. and Pickard, J.D. Global & regional CBF in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 24(1): 17-23, 2004
     
  • Owler, B.K., Parker, G., Halmagyi, GM., Dunne, VG., Grinnell, V., McDowell, D., Besser, M. Pseudotumor cerebri and venous sinus stenosis: Journal of Neurosurgery 98(5):1045-1055, 2003.
     
  • Owler, B.K., Allan, R., Parker, G., Besser, M. Pseudotumor cerebri, CSF rhinorrhoea and role of venous sinus stenting in treatment. British Journal of Neurosurgery 17(1): 79-83, 2003.
     
  • Pena, A., Owle,r B.K,. Fryer, T.D., Minhas, P., Czosnyka, M., Crawford, P.J., Pickard, J.D. A case study of hemispatial neglect using finite element analysis and positron emission tomography. Journal of Neuroimaging. 12(4):360-7, 2002 Oct.
     
  • Higgins, J. N. P., Owler, B. K., Cousins, C., Pickard, J. D. (2002) Refractory Benign Intracranial Hypertension: a new diagnostic approach suggests a new treatment - venous sinus stenting. Lancet 359: 228-230.
     
  • Owler B. K. and Pickard J.D. (2001) Cerebral Blood Flow and Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus. A Review. Acta Neurologia Scandanavica 104: 325-342.
     
  • Owler, B. K., Jacobson, E. E. and Johnston, I. H. (2001) Low Pressure Hydrocephalus Syndrome. Report of 5 cases.. British Journal of Neurosurgery 15(4): 353-359.
     
  • Owler, B. K., Fong, K. Czosnyka, Z. (2001)  Importance of ICP monitoring in CSF circulation disorders. British Journal of Neurosurgery 15(5): 439-440.
     
  • Owler, B. K., Jacobson, E. E. and Johnston, I. H. (2001) Lateral recess cysts in two cases of isolated fourth ventricle. Case report. Child’s Nervous System 17: 363-365
     
  • Owler, B. K., Kennedy, M. and Johnston, I. H. (2000) Recurrence of Glossopharyngeal Neuralgia after Rhizotomy due to Vascular Compression. Short Report. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 69:834-835.
     
  • Clement, C.I., Keay, K.A., Owler, B.K. and Bandler, R. (1996) Common patterns of increased and decreased fos expression in midbrain and pons evoked by noxious deep somatic and noxious visceral manipulations in the rat [review]. J. Comp. Neurol. 366:495-515.
     
  • Keay, K.A., Clement, C., Owler, B. K., Depaulis, A. and Bandler, R. (1994) Convergence of deep somatic and visceral pain onto a discrete ventrolateral midbrain periaqueductal gray region. Neuroscience 61:272-732.
  • Owler, B. K. (1994) Sydney University – Towards 1997. Med J Australia 160(7): 394-395.
     

Abstracts in Conference Proceedings

  • Dwyer C, Prelog K, Owler B. Venous sinus obstruction in pediatric intracranial hypertension and hydrocephalus. 23rd European Society for Paediatric Neurosurgery Congress, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
     
  • Dwyer C, Prelog K, Owler B. Venous sinus obstruction in pediatric intracranial hypertension and hydrocephalus. NSA Annual Scientific  Meeting, Fiji, 2011.
     
  • Owler B, Pham A, Tan C. Economic costs of surgical treatment of Hydrocephalus in an Australian Paediatric Neurosurgical Unit, Hydrocephalus 2011, Copenhagen, 2011
     
  • Owler, BK & Wang D. Expression and localisation of choroidal AQP1 in mice with hydrocephalus. Hydrocephalus 2009, Baltimore, 2009
     
  • Czosnyka M, Czosnyka Z, Owler BK, Pickard JD. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus. Baltimore 2009
     
  • Mahant N, Chen S, Owler BK Holmes tremor responding to dual electrode thalamic deep brain stimulation. Movement Disorders.24: S487-S487 Suppl. 1 2009
     
  • Somerville H, Owler BK. Cervical Spinal Cord Compression in Cerebral Palsy,  3rd International cerebral palsy conference, Sydney 2009, Submitted.
     
  • Owler B, da Cruz M, Everingham E,       Sillence D. Endoscopic transnasalodontoidectomy fopr the treatment of basilar invagination in osteogenesis imperfect. 10th International Conference  on Osteogenesis Imperfecta, Ghent Belgium 2008.
     
  • Owler B. K. Pseudotumor Cerebri and Venous Sinus Stenosis: Mechanism & Treatment using Venous Sinus Stents. Hydrocephalus 2005: International consensus conference. Queenstown, New Zealand. Child’s Nervous System 2005
     
  • Owler B. K. Combination of Parenchymal and Hydrodynamic Factors in Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus. Hydrocephalus 2005: International consensus conference. Queenstown, New Zealand. Child’s Nervous System 2005
     
  • Czosnyka Z,  Owler B, Czosnyka M, Gelling L Pickard JD Resistance to CSF outflow depends upon duration of symptoms in patients with Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus. 49th Annual Meeting of the Society for Research into Hydrocephalus and Spina Bifida. Cerebrospinal Fluid Research 2005, 2(Suppl 1):S33
     
  • Owler, B.K., Parker, G., Halmagyi, GM., Grinnell, V., Besser, M. Pseudotumor cerebri and venous sinus stenosis. American Association of Neurological Surgeons (E poster) 2004.
     
  • Owler, B. K. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus and Imaging. STARS Symposium, Children’s Hospital Michigan, Detroit. 2004.
     
  • Momjian, S., Owler, B. K., Czosnyka, Z.,  Czosnyka, M., Pena, A. and JD Pickard. Pattern of regional white matter CBF in normal pressure hydrocephalus during infusion test. 48th Annual Meeting of the Society for Research into Hydrocephalus and Spina Bifida. Dublin, Ireland, 2004. Cerebrospinal Fluid Research 2004, 1(Suppl 1):S14  
     
  • Owler, B.K., Pena, A., Harris, N., Czosnyka, Z., Czosnyka, M., Fryer, T., Smielewski, P., Donovan, T., and Pickard, J.D. (2003). Changes in Cerebral Blood Flow during CSF Pressure Manipulation in Patients with Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus. Proceedings of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia’s Annual Scientific Meeting, Queenstown, New Zealand.
     
  • Owler, B.K.& Chaseling R. (2003). The Australasian Shunt Registry: proposals for development. Proceedings of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia’s Annual Scientific Meeting, Queenstown, New Zealand.
     
  • JD Pickard, M Czosnyka, Z Czosnyka, L gelling, N Higgins, J Iddon,  S Momjen,  B Owler, A Pena. (2003) Human CSF dynamics. The 2nd International Workshop on Hydrocephalus. London, United Kingdom.
     
  • Momjian, S., Owler, BK., Czosnyka, Z., Czosnyka, M., Pena, A., Pickard, JD. (2003). Pattern of regional white matter CBF in normal pressure hydrocephalus. Brain 03. Proceedings of the International Society for the Study of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. Calvary, Canada.
     
  • Higgins, J.N.P., Gillard, J.H., Owler, B.K., Harkness, K., Pickard, J.D. (2002) Comparison of Magnetic Resonance Venography in Patients with Benign Intracranial Hypertension and Normal Controls. British Society for Neuroradiology. Winchester, UK.
     
  • Higgins, J.N.P., Cousins, C, Owler, B.K., Sarkies, N., Pickard, J.D. (2002) Endovascular Treatment of Benign Intracranial Hypertension. Working Group in Interventional Neuroradiology. Val d’Isere, France.
     
  • Owler, B.K., Pena, A., Harris, N., Czosnyka, Z., Czosnyka, M., Fryer, T., Smielewski, P., Donovan, T., Coles, J. and Pickard, J.D. (2002). Global & regional CBF in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus. Proceedings of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia’s Annual Scientific Meeting, Broome, Australia.
     
  • Owler, B.K., Parker, G., Halmaygi, GM., Dunne, VG., Grinnell, V., McDowell, D., Besser, M. (2002) Pseudotumor cerebri and venous sinus stenosis: Mechanism and treatment using venous sinus stents. RACS: Annual Scientific Conference, Adelaide, Australia.
     
  • Owler, B.K., Parker, G., Halmaygi, GM., Dunne, VG., Grinnell, V., McDowell, D., Besser, M. (2002) Pseudotumor cerebri and venous sinus stenosis: Mechanism and treatment using venous sinus stents. Austalasian Society for Neuro-ophthalmology, Sydney, Australia.
     
  • Green, H.A.L., Pena, A., Price, S.P., Owler, B.K., Gillard, J., Pickard, J. D., Carpenter, T. A. Partial Volume effects on Diffusion Tensor Images at 3T. RANZCR. Melbourne, Australia.
  • Owler, B.K., Pena, A., Harris, N., Green, H., Papadakis, N., Martin, K., Donovan, T., Carpenter, A. and Pickard, J.D. (2001). A study of benign intracranial hypertension using diffusion tensor imaging. World Congress of Neurological Surgeons. Sydney, Australia.
     
  • Owler, B.K., Pena, A., Harris, N., Green, H., Papadakis, N., Martin, K., Donovan, T., Carpenter, A. and Pickard, J.D. (2001). A study of normal pressure hydrocephalus using diffusion tensor imaging. World Congress of Neurological Surgeons. Sydney, Australia.
     
  • Owler, B.K., Pena, A., Harris, N., Czosnyka, Z., Czosnyka, M., Fryer, T., Smielewski, P., Donovan, T., Coles, J. and Pickard, J.D. (2001). Global & regional CBF changes in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus with changes in ICP. Brain 01. Proceedings of the International Society for the Study of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. Taipei, Taiwan.
     
  • Pena, A., Harris, N.G., Owler B.K. and Pickard, J.D. (2001) The biomechanics of steady-state ventricular dilatation in normal pressure hydrocephalus. 3rd International Hydrocephalus Workshop, Kos, Greece.
     
  • Czosnyka, M., Czosnyka, Z.H., Owler B.K., Piechnik, S.K., Smielewski, P. and Pickard, J.D. (2001) Testing of cerebrospinal compensatory reserve in shunted and non-shunted patients (an update). 3rd International Hydrocephalus Workshop, Kos, Greece.
     
  • Owler, B.K., Pena, A., Harris, N., Czosnyka, Z., Czosnyka, M., Fryer, T., Smielewski, P., Donovan, T., Coles, J. and Pickard, J.D. (2001). Global & regional CBF changes in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus with changes in ICP. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine, London, UK.
     
  • Owler, B.K., Pena, A., Harris, N., Czosnyka, Z., Czosnyka, M., and Pickard, J.D. (2000) Response of global CBF to changes in ICP in patients with hydrocephalus – an observational study. ICP 2000, Cambridge, UK.
     
  • McKechnie, S., Owler, B.K. and Johnston I.H. (1998) A review of the treatment and outcome of 400 cerebral arteriovenous malformations. Neurosurgical Society of Australasia’s Annual Scientific Meeting.
     
  • Owler, B. K., Jacobson, E. E. and Johnston, I. H. (1997) Isolated fourth ventricle. Complex Hydrocephalus and Hydrocephalus Complications, Assisi, Italy. p23.
     
  • Owler, B. K., Jacobson, E. E. and Johnston I. H. (1996) Isolated fourth ventricle: a review of the literature and twelve cases. Proceedings of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia’s Annual Scientific Meeting. p60.
     
  • Owler, B., Clement, C.I., Keay, K.A. and Bandler, R. (1994) Deep somatic and visceral noxious stimuli evoke Fos expression in different spinal laminae and a common region of the nucleus of the solitary tract. Proceeding of the Australian Neuroscience Society 5:200. Australian Neuroscience Society, Sydney, Feb.
     
  • Owler, B., Keay, K.A. and Bandler, R. (1994) Visceral noxious stimuli induce Fos-like immunoreactivity in a discrete ventrolateral midbrain periaqueductal gray region. Proceeding of the Australian Neuroscience Society 5:199. Australian Neuroscience Society, Sydney, Feb.
     
  • Keay, K.A., Clement, C.I., Owler, B.K. and Bandler, R. (1994) Central processing of deep somatic and visceral pain: Divergence within the spinal cord. Faculty of Medicine, the University of Sydney, Research Conference 1994 123. University of Sydney, Leura, Oct.
     
  • Keay, K.A., Clement, C.I., Owler, B.K. and Bandler, R. (1994) Deep somatic and visceral noxious stimuli increase Fos-like immunoreactivity in different laminae of the spinal cord. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 20:549. Society for Neuroscience, Miami, U.S.A., Nov
     
  • Clement, C.I., Keay, K.A., Owler, B.K. and Bandler, R. (1994) Central processing of deep somatic and visceral pain: Convergence in the ventrolateral midbrain periaqueductal gray. Faculty of Medicine, the University of Sydney Research Conference 1994 56. University of Sydney, Leura, Oct.
     
  • Clement, C.I., Keay, K.A., Owler, B.K. and Bandler, R. (1994) Deep somatic and visceral noxious stimulation increases Fos-like immunoreactivity in a discrete ventrolateral midbrain periaqueductal gray region. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 20:549. Society for Neuroscience, Miami, U.S.A., Nov.
     

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